What is soldering and what are its types

What is soldering?

Soldering is one of the ways in which we can connect two metal elements together. To connect them, we use a so-called binder, which is called a solder or solder. It is a relatively simple process, for which you only need a soldering iron and information about its use and metal processing. The material used for bonding has the physicochemical properties of elements from the metal group. Thanks to this property, the weld looks uniform after soldering. However, it is visible to the naked eye, it resembles a thickening in the place where the elements connect.

Contrary to welding, which is also one of the popular metalworking techniques, soldering does not affect the structure of the elements that are joined together. The process is performed at an appropriate temperature, which will not damage or melt the joined elements. The temperature that is generated by the soldering iron must be high enough for the solder to be fully plastic. In the process, all components should reach the brazing temperature. It is not much higher than the one needed to melt the solder, and at the same time low enough not to disturb the elements that we want to connect.

Types of soldering

We can divide soldering into two basic types:

  • Soft soldering - temperature below 450 ° C
  • Brazing - temperature above 450 ° C

The only difference between these methods is the temperature that is used during the work. This temperature is related to the selection of the appropriate solder. The optimum temperature allowing for the proper performance of the process is about 30-50 ° C higher than the melting point of the binder. Thanks to this, we can see the relationship between the type of soldering and the fusibility of the solder.

For soft soldering, we will use fillers with a melting point of approximately 400 ° C. We will use them to join more delicate metals.

We will use medium-melting metals for brazing. It will be a good way to get more durable parts.

Soft soldering

This method is often used in households. The process is relatively simple at low temperatures, which should be easy. We can easily do it ourselves using the simplest soldering iron.

Soft solder is perfect for joining elements made of copper, steel, brass and zinc. It will also be suitable for joining parts made of metal alloys that we mentioned earlier. This will ensure a precise and homogeneous bond. We can get ready-made soft solders as wires, sticks, plates or even in powdered form.


Unlike soft soldering, the hard method may require professional tools. Experience in the profession will also be useful. We can make February at temperatures exceeding 450 ° C by ourselves. Some metals, however, require up to five times higher soldering temperature. In extreme cases, we can already talk about industrial soldering. Specialists use specialized tools to make it.

The most popular brazing materials are silver mixtures. With their help, we can connect most metals. Copper-phosphorus solders are perfect for joining brass, copper or bronze elements. For brazing stainless steel, a nickel binder will work well, copper can be used to connect parts made of steel, brass alloys and tin.

We can use hard soldering to connect copper pipes. We will also use them, among others, in automotive and refrigeration.

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